Labor pain is a great equalizer. Queen Victoria suffered during childbirth, just like her subjects. Prince Albert had heard about chloroform easing the pain of childbirth and he asked about using it during the birth of their seventh child, Arthur, in 1850. The Queen’s three doctors advised against it, as did many doctors at that time. They considered using anesthetic during labor dangerous and an act against nature and God.
In May 1883, the volcano on the tiny, uninhabited island Krakatoa, in what today is Indonesia, showed signs of activity. By summer, loud noises and glowing clouds were reported. On August 26, the volcano began to erupt, and the next day it exploded in one of the deadliest volcanic eruptions in modern history.
Leaves in the spring and summer are mostly a pretty uniform green color. For that, you can thank the chemical compound known as chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is responsible for the process of photosynthesis, which takes sunlight and converts it into the sugars needed to sustain the tree. There are a variety of other chemical compounds, with characteristic colors other than green, always present in the leaves; however, the green chlorophyll dominates and masks your ability to see them.