Union and Confederate soldiers faced a common enemy: disease. Typhoid, measles, diarrhea and pneumonia were among the most common, but the most feared was smallpox. “Smallpox was a devastating disease. On average, three out of every 10 people who got it died,” the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention notes.
Articles by Frank Gilmore
Because of its geology, Central Virginia was the site of the first commercial coal mining in North America.
The James River Coal basin, a football shaped area 55 miles long and 12 to 17 miles wide, runs from Amelia County to Hanover County, according to Peppy Jones.
Thinking about a diamond for your valentine? How about one made by scientists?
General Electric announced in 1955 that its scientists had created a diamond. Although man-made, the synthetic diamond was pure carbon, just like a natural diamond. The company didn't enter the jewelry business but “used the stones to make tools for cutting and polishing metals, glass and even teeth,” according to GE Reports, a company newsletter.
The match business was booming at the turn of the 20th century when a match factory opened in Chesterfield County. The American Match Manufacturing Company started its Coalboro plant in 1903 near what today is Pocahontas State Park, according to Ken Shiflett, whose hobby is researching Chesterfield County history. The plant, which operated for 7 years, made its own matchsticks from trees grown on the property and received raw materials and shipped matches using a rail spur next to the plant.
Labor pain is a great equalizer. Queen Victoria suffered during childbirth, just like her subjects. Prince Albert had heard about chloroform easing the pain of childbirth and he asked about using it during the birth of their seventh child, Arthur, in 1850. The Queen’s three doctors advised against it, as did many doctors at that time. They considered using anesthetic during labor dangerous and an act against nature and God.
In May 1883, the volcano on the tiny, uninhabited island Krakatoa, in what today is Indonesia, showed signs of activity. By summer, loud noises and glowing clouds were reported. On August 26, the volcano began to erupt, and the next day it exploded in one of the deadliest volcanic eruptions in modern history.
Fear is a common reaction and may have a simple explanation. But some fears -- especially in children -- are complex, and the reasons are not always obvious. Children often fear dogs, the dark, school and costumed characters such as clowns or Santa Claus or even Mr. Peanut. Halloween can be a particularly frightening time for some children. “Children think that if it can happen, it will,” according to Joseph Crowley, Ph. D., a clinical child psychologist in Richmond. “They think differently than adults so they react differently.”
Winemaking requires a delicate balance of agriculture, biology and chemistry. Physics and engineering also have roles in producing good bottles of wine.
Wine is the fermented juice of grapes or other fruits. Grapes contain two types of sugar, glucose and fructose, and other chemicals like tartaric acid, malic acid and amino acids. This gives grapes the right balance of chemicals to help preserve the wine and make it taste good.